Friday, August 28, 2020

Differentiate between grievance and discipline Essay

Organization’s viability depends on its way of life and the board practice structure that lead towards keeping up the amicability of authoritative presentation and controlling the conduct and demeanor of its representatives. Directors are required to keep up the work environment condition through distinguishing the potential frail territories that lead towards in-disciplinary practices of representatives. Order at working environment helps control and standardize the conduct of representatives through different systems. Organization may utilize exacting disciplinary activities to cause workers to adjust their activities to the desires for the executives or may go for bunch standard strain to normalize employees’ conduct. Manager’s job is basic in such circumstance as it places incredible duty on him for driving the workers for ensuing better. Supervisor may practice exacting standards to adjust the conduct of workers that are joined by punishments/discipline sanctions on representatives. Corporate culture seeing needs to obviously pass on towards workers for beneficial gathering conduct. In any case, it has been seen that occasionally severe control additionally leads towards lower execution influencing the authoritative adequacy. Imbalance among representatives concerning prizes and treatment b the board bring about incredible disappointment; discipline activities when over displayed on certain individuals, it lead towards unfair conduct. Complaint is in this way a system to introduce the perspective to senior administration concerning the disparity and wrongness of disciplinary activities of association. Control is along these lines a lot of activities to direct and normalize the worker disposition and conduct, while complaint is a methodology to report the bad form and imbalance being looked by representatives to higher dynamic power. Hierarchical equity structure depends on these two parts that empower directors to make sense of the sources that lead towards complaint in workers. Control assists associations with keeping up the agreement and adequacy of work environment condition; rules, arrangements and standard methodology empowers direct the worker conduct and keep up association culture. Imbalance in hierarchical culture and failure of the executives to give differing working environment condition either because of cliché reaction towards a specific gathering or limiting the choices just to a specific gathering alluding to nepotism. Inadequacy of hierarchical system to deal with the circumstances and workers conduct brings about separation and gathering based structure in representatives for the assurance of their privileges. Association based culture is increasingly basic in government oversaw association where representatives have joined separate associations for the security of their work environment rights. Control requires modifications in rules and working environment strategies tending to the dimensional parts of carelessness, worker wellbeing, inadequacy, rights security, work environment standards, and hierarchical culture desires. Rules identifying with representative conduct, discipline and punishments, admonitions, and other authoritative perspectives present a reasonable desire to workers identified with working environment condition and operational administration style. Enlistment of rules is important to be passed on to new comers in association with the goal that procedural component turns out to be clear identified with worker activities, bunch standards, and administrative activities relating to representative conduct. Administrators must give representatives clear understanding about the work setting and authoritative culture through their activities and reactions towards dealing with the fairness at work environment. Cliché reactions by representatives, and gathering arrangement dependent on race/ethnic rights assurance in working environment that are delineated as separation in worker treatment, rewards and pay scale offering, and vocation development openings limitations to a specific gathering bring about occupation disappointment and decrease in authoritative responsibility. In such case, if a representative needs to introduce his perspectives concerning imbalance at working environment administrator must survey the circumstance affectability and elements that lead towards complaint documenting. Senior administration must shape an unmistakable target complaint direct so as to address such issues brought up in association. The executives must place accentuation on decency of choice by giving equivalent portrayal rights to representatives. Procedural strides for complaint hearing and choices must be restricted to certain degree of chain of command for expanding the reaction time to determine complaint issues. Senior administration can frame a board of trustees tending to complaint issues of worker having portrayal of lower level chief and in any event one part portrayal from senior administration holding dynamic force. This leads towards keeping up association equity and shows adequacy of associations structure for formalizing the system. Along these lines, order and complaint in join are basic part of vital organization’s system for equity. Chief need to keep up the control of worker and must even out the complaint system to keep up the authoritative adequacy by giving equivalent chance to all representatives to report any components that lead towards work disappointment. Protest recording system formalization streamlines the equivocalness concerning the administration point of view and capacity of workers to report any bad form. Control of rules and disciplinary activities confine the open doors for correspondence at work environment. One-sided conduct brings about abusing the standards of adaptability and opportunity of voice portrayal by workers. Formalizing the guidelines and composed approach method reinforce the order at work environment that bolsters the hierarchical equity system. Complaint procedural advances must be characterized in strategy structure to diminish vagueness and giving representatives chance to practice their privileges in circumstance when the go up against segregation at working environment; supervisor must offer help in evaluating the elements feasibility and planned job to limit the excitement of such complaint factor once more.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

“A Martian Sends A Postcard Home” by Craig Raine Essay

In â€Å"A Martian Sends a Postcard Home,† Craig Raine utilizes numerous illustrations to portray what a Martian would check whether he came to earth. In the principal refrain Raine utilizes similitudes to portray what a Martian may think a book resembles. Raine makes reference to William Caxton, who was the first to print books in England, in the principal refrain; â€Å"Caxtons are mechanical fowls with numerous wings/and some are cherished for their markings. A book would look like a feathered creature when opened, the wings being the numerous pages, and numerous books have denoted a spot in history or is treasured by the individual understanding it. In the following four lines the Martian watches the various feelings one may have while perusing a â€Å"mechanical bird,† and in spite of the fact that he’s never saw one really flying, which is inconceivable, he sees that they are some of the time in someone’s hand. In verses five and six the Martian is attempting to clarify haze. â€Å"Rain is the point at which the earth is TV/It has the property of making hues darker,† meaning when the hues are changed on a TV the image would look muddled, and shady even. Raine basically depicts a vehicle as a â€Å"Model T,† in the following two refrains. Disclosing a vehicle to be â€Å"a stay with the lock inside,† is an innovative representation. By composing â€Å"But time is attached to the wrist/or kept in a container, ticking with impatience,† Raine is communicating that the Martian is experiencing a watch or a clock. In verses ten through twelve the Martian has happened upon a phone, which he depicts as a â€Å"haunted apparatus,† which normally â€Å"sleeps,† and cries, or rings until it is gotten. Raine likewise adds the component of funniness to the sonnet, a model is in the twelfth verse when he composes, â€Å"And yet they wake it up/intentionally, by tickling with a finger.† The Martian accepts that people â€Å"tickle† the keypad with their fingers, when they’re making a call. â€Å"A discipline room/with water yet nothing to eat,† is a restroom. The Martian sees that â€Å"Only the youthful are permitted to endure openly,† which is truly when I youngster would get their diaper changed, and grown-ups must be separated from everyone else when they go to the â€Å"punishment room.† Finally, in the last two verses the Martian is depicting the evening schedule of people, â€Å"At night when all the hues kick the bucket/they stow away two by two/and read about themselves/in shading, with their eyes shut,† as it were by the day's end people shut their eyes to nod off and dream. This sonnet utilizes a different similitudes to portray what a Martian wouldâ encounter on the off chance that he visited Earth. The sonnet is intriguing to peruse in light of the fact that it requires the peruser to utilize their creative mind, the peruser must think so as to make sense of these ordinary things the Martian is seeing just because, it’s fairly a brainteaser. It’s clear that the Martian is seeing these things just because, it makes the peruser wonder why a basic thing, for example, a watch or a clock isn't found on his planet, is time unimportant were he’s from?

Friday, August 21, 2020

Financial and Human Resources Management - SEEN EXAMINATION Essay

Money related and Human Resources Management - SEEN EXAMINATION - Essay Example These archives look to show the conceivable expense of effectively completing the development venture, on the off chance that it is granted. Conversely, offering alludes both to the refinement of conditions so as to show up at the last and most balanced cost, and the, legally binding terms that must be submitted to advertisers or their delegates. The subsequent stage (likewise alluded to as offer settling), involves assessment of the plausible safety buffers in set up quotes, potential dangers, just as the probable monetary effects of finishing the venture. Choices that are made by official work force with respect to offer mediation are normally affirmed at a proper show as Gray and Larson, (2003) notes. Such a conventional gathering to settle on choices with respect to offer arbitration happens a few days before arrangement of the last offer. This gives sufficient time to free appraisal from offer accreditations before genuine offering. The proper gathering likewise guarantees that all the pertinent data is considered before a contractual worker is picked, in this manner abstaining from choosing a temporary worker that can't completely convey on venture necessities. The contemplations made by directors incorporate factors, for example, intense rivalry, vulnerability in quotes, lacking or poor data in regards to a specific venture, and dangers related with creation or task usage. These viewpoints must be adequately examined, since, as Akintoye and Fitzgerald (2000, p. 164) propose, â€Å"the most critical elements bringing about off base assessments incorporate deficient time for delicate readiness; poor delicate documentation; inadequate investigation of the documentation by the evaluating group and absence of survey of quotes by organization management.† Despite the wide variety of difficulties, official work force need to settle on fitting arbitration choices dependent on these components. The viewpoints that impact management’s choices during the critical offering procedure and settling specifically can be ordered, as indicated by Betts (1990, pp. 402-408), into three classes including employment, market, and friends related elements. The five star of employment related viewpoints, represents components that are legitimately connected to the particular task or undertaking type. A large portion of these variables are assessed over the span of getting ready offers and an examination of these viewpoints is passed on to pertinent gatherings in the mediation show. Market-related dynamic components, represent the outer impacts, for example, rivalry from different contractual workers. Investigation of angles like outer rivalry may empower the separate firm to plan methodologies that would help in expanding upper hand. At long last, as Betts (1990, p. 403) states â€Å"company-related variables that impact dynamic in the settling procedure, include: the business’ objectives and targets, just as, its corporate arrangement on bidding.† Adjudicators, for the most part contained ranking executives or directors, are assumed, as Young, (2003), notes, to assess the previously mentioned factors and related data, in exploring venture quotes and finishing the cost of the agreement. As appeared in the evaluation above, there are various contemplations in the offering procedure. In this manner, leaders should completely fathom the specified targets and objectives of the procedure, notwithstanding evaluated venture costs, so as to guarantee that offering is reasonable and that it is lined up with the

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

What You Should Do to Find Out About Christian Classical Education Essay Samples Before Youre Left Behind

What You Should Do to Find Out About Christian Classical Education Essay Samples Before You're Left Behind Choosing Good Christian Classical Education Essay Samples School board elections can turn into the focus of the whole community. Children spend most of their childhood within it. Ideas, Formulas and Shortcuts for Christian Classical Education Essay Samples This genuinely eases the undertaking of the admission official and raises the possibility of you receiving your admittance letter. He might acknowledge or may decline anything what's going on outside. Rather than lifting up our very best students as proof that we're doing things the correct way, our response to their success needs to be gratitude. If people know they need to serve a specific quantity of time they'll be better able to apply it to their hedonistic calculus. But aside from that, I don't have any clue. The Hidden Treasure of Christian Classical Education Essay Samples Singing is a fundamental portion of worship to God. Christian education starts with the reality of God. My life is entirely un-figured out. But of the knowledge that's eternal life it doesn't directly state. The Truth About Christian Classical Education Essay Samples Classical Christian Homeschooling is presently adding to our incomplete website. That's the most important purpose of Classical Education. You visit the Classical Writing website to set an order. Many Christian schools have borrowed secular facets and western traditions from some other regions of the world. This was the focus for a lot of the time leading to the Age of Enlightenment. While picking out a topic, make certain it is not really common and make sure it emphasizes on your strengths and uniqueness. There are lots of benefits to private schools. What the In-Crowd Won't Tell You About Christian Classical Education Essay Samples However, since this sort of education comes of age, it has to be wary of certain temptations. However, among the implications or dangers is the lack of a firm Biblical base. Although this complaint has merit in many instances, we must take care lest our schools fall into exactly the same pit. Its nuisance-value is extremely significant. Here's What I Know About Christian Classical Education Essay Samples Needless to say, the assigned texts are edited. This does not automatically mean our teaching must always incorporate the usage of literary devices. Musical instruments weren't allowed due to their heathen usage. The curriculum that's employed in Christian education is of utmost importance. Engaging our students in this sort of conversation demands a curriculum allows us to achieve that. Philosophy of Curriculum Education and academics is part of curriculum, where the teachers and the parents work together to make sure the emotional growth and social development of the student. This is the sole way to create Christian education successful. Therefore, it's important to ge t a sound Christian education so as to distinctively develop a Christian philosophy. The first thing which makes an exemplary Christian education is wisdom. That is a really Christian education. Another point is that several offenders aren't mindful of the punishment for those crimes they commit, so they don't know the complete extent to which their actions could be punished. Bentham introduced the notion of utilitarianism which believes that individuals should work to accomplish the absolute most happiness for the most people in the people. Our focus should always be on the 1 thing that really determines our successGod's power and promises. Thus, folks make decisions to commit crime depending on the rational selection of will pleasure outweigh pain. In case the punishment isn't always equal in severity to the harm resulting from the crime, then people are somewhat more likely to commit crimes should they believe the punishment doesn't match the advantage of committing it. I n this came the notion of deterrence. Make certain the tone of your essay doesn't deviate from the true topic at any point. After the reader finds the introduction to be impressive, they might arrive at the immediate conclusion you've composed the essay without deviating from the subject and concluded perfectly. Within this stage, the kid is in a parrot'' stage of repeating what they're told. What About Christian Classical Education Essay Samples? This pattern stayed in place for an extremely long time period. I understand that's the way that it's supposed to be. In the recent days, everything appears to repeat at the same time. The Fight Against Christian Classical Education Essay Samples 1 way to accomplish this is to begin the essay with a strong introduction that provides a synopsis of the essay and also comprises a vital sentence to the topic. The very first step is to select a suitable essay topic and the selection of the subject depends upon the Christian Institut ion of your selection. Even in the event the application demands no essay, it is suggested to incorporate the writings anyway. If you own an issue writing Classic essays, online writing experts will be able to help you. Getting the Best Christian Classical Education Essay Samples I don't understand what I'll do. All of these are writings which are in the public domain. Teachers may change the inner aspects only by appropriately utilizing the outer facets. The Appeal of Christian Classical Education Essay Samples So while I don't utilize CCE myself, I've had a superb bit of exposure to the programs. This is since this is only a process, where the truth is communicated an implemented during the classroom activity. An unusual quality of the whole program is the fashion you purchase it. It sounds complex like I write about the program, but when you have the pattern down, it ought to be a straightforward practice. Top Christian Classical Education Essay Samples Secrets More over, there's a set of grammar flashcards at the close of the book that you need to cut out and laminate. The crucial issue is happening within the student.

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Threat Of Terrorism Has Become A Major Issue For...

Nurses play a pivotal role in urban communities, when it comes to health care and disaster planning. Nurses need to comprehend their role in response to terrorist events, since they implement assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of the victims of terrorism, as well as disaster planning and response, at both the individual and community level. (Gebbie, K., Qureshi, K. 2006) The threat of terrorism has become a major issue for public health systems across the United States, and teaching urban and rural communities to plan ahead has become an important factor in disaster preparedness. Community awareness, education, and engagement can be provided not only through formal public health and public safety mechanisms and the local media, but also through a range of unique ways such as community groups, health organizations, and religious groups. These groups provide not only information, but also social support for participation in the planning and response effort that will help individuals stay engaged over time, even during times of perceived â€Å"low risk† when preparedness can become pervasive and forgotten about. Communities should carefully examine their own assets, and use them to build and plan a system to use if they were to ever have a disaster occur. When disaster hits, its inevitable, which is why planning ahead of time within communities is important to implement. A key asset is the relationships that already exist among potential planning partners in the community; theseShow MoreRelatedBiological Agent Essay1398 Words   |  6 Pagesvirus could spread before we even know that it has spread. One very easy way of launching a biological attack is through the use of our aviation transportation system. At airports such as the George Bush Intercontinental Airport in Houston, Texas, the Miami International Airport in Miami, Florida, the Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California, and the John F. Kennedy International Airport, in New York, which are gateways to every major city in the United States, processed thousandsRead MoreTerrorism, The Nuclear Hazard And Black Market1234 Words   |  5 Pagespreeminent threats to security and the sense of freedom from those threats are terrorism, the nuclear hazard and black market in materiel. These three security issues, not only affect national and international security, but also societal and economic security. Terrorism, has maintained the status as a preeminent threat in the modern world today, but has also become a worldwide phenomenon that has impacted not only in the Middle East but also in the Western World alike. Terrorism has rapidly becomeRead MoreLeading Group Challenges1610 Words   |  7 Pagesfor their operations. Budget cuts trigger staffing reductions for criminal justice managers. Personnel reduction makes it hard for officers to train for response to volatile public safety threats. These budget cuts also influence decisions on how to deal with offenders. Budget cuts over time can force the criminal justice system to spend less money on probation and parole supervision that help to keep prison populations lower. These same budget cuts can result in staff reduction in prisons, the closingRead MoreCritical Infrastructure : The United States Forward As A World Dominating Force Essay1161 Words   |  5 Pagesstrength to the country’s wealth, health and security. We use them every day in our lives, it is the bridges we cross when we go to work, and it is the planes, trains, and automobiles that move the citizens throughout the nation. 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Homeland Security1358 Words   |  6 PagesSecurity and Homeland Defense, terms that are often used interchangeably, actually have somewhat different meanings as they each have a different scope. Homeland Security is a term that has come into use much more frequently foll owing the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, whereas Homeland Defense is a system that has been in place for a longer period of time. Both of these have goals that both overlap, and yet are distinctly different. To better understand the similarities and differences let usRead MoreTerror of the 21st Century: Terrorism1315 Words   |  6 Pages Terror of the 21st century Terrorism happens every day in modern life and we are oblivious to it. Day cares have children bullying others. Beating up families to prove to their rivals they mean business is just one of the100 plus definitions of terrorism. There are many types of terrorism and each one is different butone thing is certain, terrorism is a threat to global society. Terror comes from a Latin term,terrere meaning to frighten and this was use was used by the Romans to describe the terrorRead MoreThe Goals Of Risk Management Essay1395 Words   |  6 PagesThe goal of risk management is to identify and eliminate or evade potential vulnerabilities and threats that are not wanted because it creates losses. The fundamentals concepts and principals of Risk Management apply at home, at work, in the community, and at critical infrastructure locations in because there are risks that can cause losses at these places which should be identified and escaped. For instance, at home there are many vulnerabilities which should be found and ways to evade them determinedRead MoreTerrorism Between Terrorism And Terrorism1793 Words   |  8 Pagesprinciple aim of preventing terrorism and anticipating potential terrorist threats to the community. There are both positive and negative implications of counter-terrorism policing in the administration of justice in Australia. This essay will explore these implications and discuss how such matters affect Australians. In specifically negative effects such as counter-terrorism operations often being directed at specific groups, defined on the basis of origin or religion. Terrorism comes from the FrenchRead MoreMethods to Counter Terrorism2293 Words   |  10 PagesTERRORISM AND MEASURES TO CTR THIS THREAT TERRORISM AND MEASURES TO CTR THIS THREAT Introduction 1. The menace of terrorism is the most clear and present danger at this point in time. The word terrorism was first used in France to describe a new system of government adopted during the French revolution (1789-1799). The reign of terror was intended to promote democracy and popular rule by ridding the revolution of its enemies and thereby purifying it. However, the oppression and violent excesses

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Effects Of Long Term Space Flight - 1279 Words

Meghan Stavig ESS102 Research Paper 1/17/2015 Effects of Long Term Space Flight We’ve all heard about the rigorous mental and physical tests that astronaut candidates must go through in order to be considered to be sent into space; but what is the methodology behind them? What most laymen’s’ overlook when they think ‘Astronaut’ is the extreme physical and mental taxation that is associated with space flight. Astronauts will have to endure long-term isolation, monotony, limited mobility and close living quarters amongst each other for months and potentially years at a time. This can lead to many health issues; the sanitary conditions of the spacecraft must be impeccable. Mentally, these extenuating circumstances can lead to depression,†¦show more content†¦The calcium and phosphorous is excreted through human waste, causing kidney stones in many cases [3]. The most affected bones consist of the heel, femoral neck, lumbar spine and pelvis. Astronauts spend between 2-5 hours a day exercising to try to decrease this atrophy , but will still experience varying levels of bone and muscle loss [3]. The use of artificial gravity could mitigate this problem, and is currently being researched and designed. Along with bone loss, Astronauts will also experience growth in height, by about 3% [3]. Without gravity, the human spine isn’t weighed down and has room to expand. This causes severe back and muscle aches, and makes exercising harder and more painful. Once astronauts return to Earth, they will return to their normal height [3]. Another major problem associated with humans in space flight is radiation poisoning [5]. Astronauts will be exposed to extremely high levels of ionizing radiation (radiation consisting of particles, x-rays, or gamma rays with sufficient energy to cause ionization—acquires a negative or positive charge) from cosmic rays and solar flares. Astronauts will â€Å"see† flashes of light while their eyes are closed, these are actually cosmic rays slashes through their brains [5]. This form of radiation can damage human cells, potentially leading to a diminished immune system and a higher risk of cataracts, cancer, heart disease, damage to the central nervous system

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Teen Pregnancyâ€A Social Issue free essay sample

After researching various statistics, I found that premarital pregnancy is quite prevalent in teenagers throughout the world. Teen pregnancy is one of the most difficult experiences a young person might ever face when it interrupts school or other plans. It can create an emotional crisis resulting in feelings of shame and fear, and it may appear that you will crumble under pressures in your environment. The stress of how one would break the news to their parents might be even greater, and finding help may seem an impossible task. People might think that they can help others, or one might be too embarrassed to search for help. For the most part, when one sees teenagers raising children, we often think that the teen has been raped or is too mature for their age. For this reason, some totally miss the issues that one must have been exposed to in their society, the society of their home, community, school. There are many viewpoints as to why teenage females are having so many children out of wedlock. However, the facts are obvious—teenaged females are highly influenced by many social issues, but those with the lack of strong parental guidance, sex education, and positive mass media are more likely to have a premarital pregnancy. As one travels the globe, they will find that industrialized and developing countries have distinctly different rates of teenage pregnancy. In the online article, â€Å"Teen Pregnancy on the Rise,† Sipokazi Maposa says that in developed countries, teenage pregnancies are associated with many social issues: lower educational levels, higher rates of poverty, and no strong parental guidance in the teenagers life. Maposa discusses the challenges which teens in Africa face as the teenage pregnancy rate increase. She contributes a wealth of information as to why teens have children at such a young age. Maposa suggests that the primary reason for teen pregnancy is the lack of communication between them and their parent(s). This is a useful source because it shows how teenage pregnancy is a more of a social issue than physical or emotional issue. Teens that have no strong father figure or parental guidance will be more likely to have children at an early age. The child provides posit ive regard (love), affection, and fulfills the social loss. Therefore, the article shows the effects that lack of parental guidance, sex education, and mass media has on teenage pregnancy, and how it relates teenage pregnancy to foster homes. Most people who are put into foster homes do not come from parents of strong guidance, because indeed they lost their children. An online report, â€Å"Fostering Hope: Preventing Teen Pregnancy among Foster Youth† examined how teenage pregnancy relates to foster care sates Love. The reports shows that foster youth that have lost their parents and end up in a foster home are less prone to having teenage pregnancies. Therefore, the correlation breaks because even though youth do not have their biological parents they still have some type of parental guidance. Consequently, most foster homes do have strong parental guidance, control over sex education, and negative mass media because there are so many restrictions as to what foster homes can and cannot perform by law. With this information, one would conclude that when someone is put into a foster home they turn out not to be pregnant at a one age. This is true according to a study performed to examine how common teenage pregnancy is among young women in and aging out of foster care and to determine whether the risk of becoming pregnant can be reduced by extending foster care beyond age 18. Amy Dworsky states that the study used data from the first two waves of the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth, a longitudinal study of foster youth making the transition to adulthood in three Midwestern states, as well as the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Dworsky examined the relationship between care status and the risk of teenage pregnancy. Foster youth are more likely to experience teenage pregnancy than their peers in the general population, but staying in care seems to mitigate their risk of becoming pregnant even after the effects of other factors are taken into account. The findings of the study was to provide additional evidence of the need for a more concerted effort by child welfare agencies to help youth in foster homes avoid becoming pregnant. It would suggest that allowing young people to remain in foster care beyond age 18 may be one way to reduce teenage pregnancy among this population. Even the federal government has found teenage pregnancy to be a social issue in which lack of parental guidance, sex education, and positive media has been recognized. According to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), teenage pregnancy has been rising steadily from 1987 to 1991; the birthrate for teens aged 15-19 declined for 10 straight years, from a high of 62.1 per 1,000 teens aged 15-19 in 1991 to a record low of 45.9 in 2001, according to preliminary figures. The birthrate for young teenagers aged 15-17 fell 8 percent from 2000 to 2001, reaching 25.3 births per 1,000 teenagers. All 50 states had a decline in their teen birthrates between 1991 and 2000, with 10 states recording declines of more than 20 percent during this period. Recent declines in both birth and abortion rates indicate that teen pregnancy rates are continuing to fall. Overall teen pregnancy rates have dropped 19 percent since 1991. About 900,000 pregnancies occur each year among American teenagers aged 15-19. Most of these pregnancies are unintended. Almost 190,000 teens aged 17 and younger have children are not in school, have no parents around, and are overtaken by the imagery of mass media. After seeing those statistics, if makes one wonder if there are any more studies which will create a solution. President George Bush and the HHS sent researchers to Detroit, Michigan for a study to be conducted. They have found that the increase in teenage pregnancy has arisen out of social issues as well. The article â€Å"Teen Pregnancy† focuses on the potentials causes: society, individual families, and media. The article states how society has embraced teenage pregnancy in the United States. Society relates to our schools and media which have caused teen pregnancy to increase. Finally, the report presented solutions to the decrease teenage pregnancy: create pregnancy-prevention programs, public attention on interventions, and highlight the challenges of becoming a teenage parent. All of the solutions will be effective, encouraging, and empowering. â€Å"There are significantly more teenage pregnancies in the United States than all other developing countries,† state s Cleo Moore in the Complete and Authoritative Guide. He also claims that out of every five women in their teens, two will become pregnant in the United States. Teen pregnancy rates have increased 23% from 1972 to 1990. In order to come to a solution it is important to examine why teenage pregnancy is so high in the United States. When one analyzes teen pregnancy, an effective way to get to the root of the problem is using the critical component of the sociological imagination. Mass media is designed to reach large audiences with technology. Its purpose is meant to give us entertainment and information we need to act as a society. Media is everywhere; there is no escaping from it. Almost every home in America has at least one TV, the internet, and a cell phone. You cannot drive down the street without seeing billboard signs. Checking out at the grocery store can be tricky if trying to avoid magazines. There are more forms of media available today than ever before; consequently, teens are exposed to a lot of information. The media is supposed to portray what is normal; therefore, it affects what society considers normal. Teens are much more impressionable then adults. What the media tells them is normal affects them more. The media’s portrayal of body image affects teens negatively through using stereotypes, encouraging sexual behavior, and promoting unnecessary products. The media portrays single parent homes, teen pregnancy, and the social issue th at America faces in a positive light. Music Television (MTV) has several shows which portray teen pregnancy as a positive attribute of life: Teen Mom and 16 and Pregnant. Teen Mom is an American reality television series that premiered on MTV on December 8, 2009. The series is a spin-off of 16 and Pregnant and chronicles the lives of four of the original teenagers from that series as they navigate their first year of motherhood. In addition to showing the teenage motherhood, the show focuses on themes of changing relationships; specifically, those of the family, friends, couples, and school. It shows the struggles teenagers have to go through to raise their children. This show adds to the point that the media can display teenage pregnancy in a way that makes other teenagers want to become pregnant. Now people get pregnant because they have an excuse: I have social problem and now I can get pregnant. Richard Smith, a Washtenaw Community College student, states, â€Å"The American po pular culture glorifies sex and ignores responsibility. Beginning in early childhood, young people are bombarded with sexual messages. Especially from the world of media, the messages are subliminal.† The urge to have sex and get pregnancy is now stronger because of the fact that one has an encounter with media. Likewise, 16 and Pregnant is also a MTV reality television series produced by Morgan J. Freeman, and was first broadcast on June 11, 2009. It follows the stories of pregnant teenage girls in high school dealing with the hardships of teenage pregnancy. Each episode features a different teenage girl, with the episode typically beginning when she is 4 1?2–8 months into her pregnancy. Scott Brown, church member, discusses that although teenage pregnancy is not inevitable, some life circumstances place girls at higher risk of becoming teen mothers. These include poverty, poor school performance, and growing up in a single parent household. One can either have a mothe r who was an adolescent mother, or have no strong parental guidance with lack of sex education and positive media. There are teenagers who are getting pregnant just to be on these reality television shows, according to Rob Shuter. Shuter claims in an online article, â€Å"Teens Become Pregnant to get on Teen Mom,† that teenagers are getting pregnant just to get an audition on the reality television shows. Now teenagers, of course, get pregnant for many reasons, but most teens that get pregnant come from broken homes and have no strong parental guidance. The web article â€Å"Teen Help† states that despite declines in rates of teen pregnancy in the United States, about 820,000 teens become pregnant each year. That means that 34 percent of teenagers have at least one pregnancy before they turn 20. Teen Help declares that 79 percent of the teenagers who get pregnant are unmarried. According to the National Vital Statistics Reports, there is a connection with the pregnancy and divorce rates in America. This is quite interesting because many do not associate divorce with pregnancy as they think that there is no longer a sexual urge with the individuals. Divorce does not only affect the adults, but the children as well. Therefore, those children can lose the parental guidance needed to keep them from immoral ideals such as premarital sex and pregnancy. According to the article Lack of Parental Guidance Contributes to Teen Pregnancy, many pregnant teenagers do not have any cognition of the central facts of sexuality. This means that the teenagers have no idea what they are doing. This points back at the parents, because even though children get sex education in elementary, they do not get the â€Å"real† information until their parents have talked to them. The Lack of Parental Guidance Contributes to Teen Pregnancy, states that most people evade their children from talking about sex. In some cases, they provide false information regarding sex and discourage their children to participate in any informative discussion about sex. In some cases, teenage mothers are not well educated about sex before getting pregnant and thus this leads to lack of communication between the parents and the children. Steven Black, child of teenage parent states, â€Å"I think the lack of parental guidance is a strong influence on teenage pregnancy. The fact remains that more teenagers/adolescents are having babies, and the teenager would not see the problem with sex at a young age since their parents had sex at a young age.† Emily, a college student at Eastern Michigan University claims that she was pressured into having sex with her boyfriend when she was thirteen, but neither of her parents had taught her how to deal with this pressure and to say no . The lack of communication, supervision, and guidance is the main result of teenagers becoming pregnant in America. There are so many cases, such as Emily’s, where young girls have not been taught about self-respect and guided to say no to sex. There is still work to be done because the lack of education on safe sex, whether it’s from parents, schools, or otherwise, is not yet preventing teenage pregnancy. Many teenagers are not taught about methods of birth control and how to deal with peers who pressure them into having sex before they are ready. Some teens have said to be pressured into having sex with their boyfriend when the teen was young and yet no one had taught these teens how to deal with this pressure or to say no. According to an online new article, â€Å"Sex Education the Works† educating teenagers about their sexual behavior and activity create skills helps to inform them about acting on these choices. When providing sex education it can seem daunting because it means tackling a sensitive issue and involves a variety of people a parents, schools, community groups and health service providers. However, because sex education comprises many individual activities, which take place across a wide rang e of settings and periods of time, there are lots of opportunities to contribute. Nevertheless, it is often argued that teenage pregnancy has multiple results as to why it is more prevalent. In some societies, early marriage and traditional gender roles are important factors in the rate of teenage pregnancy. For example, in some sub-Saharan African countries, early pregnancy is often seen as a blessing because it is proof of the young womans fertility. In the Indian subcontinent, early marriage and pregnancy is more common in traditional rural communities compared to the rate in cities. The various areas have created an educational plan for their youth, and it has helped dramatically. Now, there are those who say that society can be blamed for many things, but teenage pregnancy is not one. Most people blame the individual teenagers for creating this epidemic across the world. There have always been parents who have not been strong figures in their child’s lives, but the child never had a teenage pregnancy. Sex education can only teach a person so much, but if one does not inhabit what they have been taught, then they really have not learned anything at all. Finally, the mass media says to do many things and portrays many negative and immoral activities, but teenagers, like any other age group, have to decide what is right and wrong. Christ Lewis, student at Washtenaw Community College and child of a teenage mother states that society can deal you a bad hand of cards, but it’s how you response to what you do with what you have been given. Schoffner claims, â€Å"Many issues through society will come forth, but you have to know how to handle it.† Of course, society has created a world for humans to fail and do wrong, but in the end the decision is up to the individual. When one looks at teenage pregnancy, especially in America, they see a high rate of pregnancies. It would make a person wonder, â€Å"Why is pregnancy prevalent in teenagers?† The answer is quite simply, yet interesting†¦teenagers who do not have strong parental guidance, sex education, and positive media reinforcement are more prone to a premarital pregnancy. Imagine a young girl, who’s in school, makes honor roll, helps her community, and is just an all-around good person. However, she has never had strong, consistent parental guidance in her life. She has never been taught about birth control, and the how to deal with peer pressure. She has the media pressuring her every day. Last week she was pressured into having sex with a guy that was cool and popular in their school, and just a few days ago she found out that she was pregnant. Now she has to go tell her parents (who have never cared before) about the news. This news is shocking, but happens every day in Am erica and throughout the world. People can blame the teenagers who get pregnant, but our society is the blame! The lack of parental guidance, sex education, and positivity media on the outlook of pregnancy has impacted the high rates of teen pregnancy across the world. Teen pregnancy is one of the most difficult experiences a young person might ever face when it interrupts school or other plans. For the most part, when one sees teenagers raising children, we often think that the teen has been raped or is more mature for their age. For this reason, some totally miss these social issues in which all have great impact on the teenagers decision on getting pregnant or not. There are many viewpoints as to why teenage females are becoming pregnant at such a young age. However, the information is apparent—teenaged females who lack of strong parental guidance, sex education, and positive mass media are more likely to have a premarital pregnancy.